An orthopedic condition concerns the muscles, ligaments, and joints of the body. Common examples include osteoarthritis, degenerative disc disease, along with varied ligament and tendon injuries.

Clinical research shows, the regeneration quality of stem cells can aid in the reproduction of cartilage and bone tissue cells, the restoration of joint function, as well as the reduction of pain; meaning minimally invasive stem cell procedures can be used to treat some of the most common orthopedic conditions.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage potential to differentiate into cell types of mesodermal origin. Due to this attribute, MSCs can differentiate into chondrocytes, which are later replaced by bone. These cells may repair the subchondral bone without any loss of articular cartilage at the surface. MSCs have shown to therapeutically alter the progression of OA by down-regulating the release and expression of the main OA inflammatory factors and chemokines (signaling proteins secreted by cells) directly involved in the progression of the disease. According to the literature, there are reports of significant improvements in joint function, reduction in pain, and an increase of cartilage in the affected joint.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) display long-term proliferation, efficient self-renewal, and multipotent differentiation. Because of these characteristics, MSCs may have the ability to stop and reverse degeneration of spinal discs. Some studies have shown an increase in disc height, disc water content, and gene expression. One of the main biological functions of MSCs is their ability to reproduce cartilage and bone tissue cells (multipotent differentiation capability). This is important in degenerative disc disease, since a large number of cells from the outer ring (annulus fibrosus) and the inner gelatinous (nucleus pulposus) of the discs are of a cartilaginous nature.

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